What is vitamin K?
Vitamin K is a derivative of a naphthoquinone group having the biological activity of chlorophyllin. Naturally occurring vitamins K1 and K2, vitamin K1 is found in green plants and is an important source of vitamin K in foods; Vitamin K2 is synthesized by intestinal bacteria.
Synthetic vitamin K3, K4, K5, K7, and the like. Vitamin k2 is biologically active in animals and both vitamin K1 and vitamin K3 are converted to vitamin K2 to function. The three forms of vitamin K are converted into vitamin K2 in the liver and are absorbed and utilized together with vitamin K2 synthesized by gastrointestinal organisms.
Vitamin K2 is a generic term for a series of terpene side chain compounds containing 2 methyl-1,4 naphthoquinone core and a C3 position with a different number of isoprene structural units depending on the side chain of a terpene. The number of carbon elements can be classified into K2, (10), K2 (20).
Vitamin K2 is fat-soluble vitamin a derivative of the naphthoquinone group with the biological activity of chlorophyll and is one of the important vitamins in the human body.
Vitamin K2 (35) is a vitamin K2 with 35 carbon elements in the side chain of terpene; vitamin K2 (35) is also known as menaquinone -7 which is based on the side of terpene with 7 isoprenes. Vitamin K2 is the only biologically active form of vitamin K.
it is used to accelerate blood clotting, maintain clotting time, and treat hemorrhagic disease caused by vitamin K deficiency.
Types of vitamin K
Difference between MK-4 and Mk -7.
Vitamin K2 contributes to bone and cardiovascular health. Therefore, two vitamin K2 homologs, menaquinone -4 MK-4, and menaquinone -7 Mk -7 have been used as nutrients by the food industry and as nutritional supplements to support bone and cardiovascular health. Mk – 4 present in food does not contribute to the vitamin K status as measured by serum vitamin K levels.
MK-7 however significantly increases serum MK-7 levels and therefore may be of particular importance for extrahepatic tissues.
Therefore it can be seen that Vitamin K2 (MK-7) far exceeds vitamin K2 (MK-4 ) in terms of biological activity, bioavailability, and efficacy
Benefits and application of vitamin K2
The health benefits of vitamin K2 go far beyond blood clotting which is done by vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 also works synergistically with several other nutrients including calcium and vitamins. It may help stave off chronic disease by :
1. Preventing cardiovascular disease
2. Ensuring healthy skin
3. Forming strong bones
4. Improving bone health
5. Promoting brain function
6. Supporting growth and development
7. Helping prevent cancer.
- Treatment of vitamin K2 deficiency hemorrhagic.
- Calcium introducing bone: Vitamin K2 has carboxylation of primary osteocalcin which is secreted by osteoblast and becomes active osteocalcin thereby promoting deposition of calcium ions in the bone. If the body’s vitamin K2 is sufficient, it can activate osteocalcin, The activated osteocalcin has a unique affinity for calcium ions which can induce calcium into the bone and deposit calcium salts thereby promoting mineralization.
- Treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. , Vitamin K2 promotes bone protein, and then together with calcium to form bone increase bone density, and prevent fracture.
- Vitamin K2 can prevent liver cirrhosis from progressing to liver cancer
- Treatment of vitamin K2 deficiency hemorrhagic disease, promote the formation of prothrombin, accelerates blood clotting, maintains normal clotting time.
- It has a diuretic, strengthens the detoxification function of the liver, and can lower blood pressure.
- Health care function: Treatment and prevention of osteoporosis Vitamin K2 can prevent liver cirrhosis from progressing to liver cancer
- Anti-tumor mechanism: The main role of vitamin K2 is a coagulation function in the body. In recent years it can induce apoptosis in leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes of solid tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and ovarian cancer. It has an anti-tumor effect and synergistic effect with various antitumor drugs.
The similarity between chitosan chitin and vitamin K2
Chitin is a polymer of glucosamine that is found in shells or walls of invertebrates fungi and yeast. It is the main component of crustacean exoskeletons and is made up of calcium oxide and protein unit s. Chitin forms 50-80 % of organic compounds in crustacean shells.
Chitosan, an amino polysaccharide is prepared from shellfish chitin by treatment with alkali. Both chitin and chitosan are nonstarch polysaccharides and have the potential to be regarded as components of dietary fiber.
On the other hand, if you go with vitamin K3 it has effects on the calcium ions and bone formation as explained above. so there is some affinity between the calcium metabolism of the body and blood clotting which needs extensive research. Research is advanced now.
Every new day scientists are coming up with research therapies about the same Coagulation is now being taken a further step by entering the coagulation pathways which will be explained further in connection with the calcium metabolism.
Hemostatic arrest bleeding and the main function of chitosan and vitamin K2 is an application that is widely extensively used for blood clotting.
A functional chitosan-based hydrogel with vitamin K2 as a wound dressing and drug delivery system in the treatment of wound healing. Function active wound dressings are expected to provide a moist wound environment offer protection from secondary infections, remove wound exudate, and accelerate tissue regeneration as well as improve the efficiency of wound healing.
Chitosan-based hydrogels are considered ideal materials for enhancing wound healing owing to biodegradable, biocompatible, non-toxic, antimicrobial, biologically adhesive, biological activity, and hemostatic effects. Chitosan-based hydrogels with vitamin K2 have been demonstrated to promote wound healing at different wound healing stages and also can alleviate the factors against wound healing such as excessive inflammatory and chronic wound infection.
The unique biological properties of chitosan-based hydrogel with vitamin k2 enable it to serve as both a wound dressing and a drug delivery system (DDS) to deliver antibacterial agents and growth factors stem cells and so on which could further accelerate wound healing.
For various kinds of wounds, chitosan-based hydrogels can promote the effectiveness of wound healing by modifying or combining with other polymers and carrying different types of active substances. Let us take a closer look at the applications of chitosan-based hydrogels with vitamin K2 in wound healing and drug delivery system to enhance wound healing.